Inclusive design: outdoor access guidance 3
3. Gradients and ramps
Any routes that include a gradient are potentially hazardous and exhausting to people with limited mobility. It is essential to consider slope together with distance as sometimes a slightly steeper gradient over a shorter length may be preferred to a very long ramp.
The following notes are intended as a basic guide and not as detailed specifications. It is essential that any design meets current Building Regulations.
1:15 - recommended maximum gradient.
1:20 - preferred maximum gradient.
A ramp at maximum gradient (1:15) should not exceed 10m.
A level resting platform, approximately 1.8m long, should be provided at least every 30m on sustained gradients of more than 1:20 (or intervals of at least 10m on gradients of 1:15).
900mm: minimum for one-way traffic.
1800mm: minimum for two-way traffic.
A ramped building approach should be a minimum of 1200mm.
Clear minimum length of 1500mm at top of bottom of ramp.
Use textured surfaces on the approaches to ramps to provide warnings to people with visual impairments.
Handrails and kerbs
Handrails should be provided on both sides. Low kerbs, minimum 40mm height, should be incorporated along the sides of ramps as wheel stops.
If used after dark, ramps should be lit.
Protection of frequently used ramps by a roof overhang or overhead canopy is valuable. Heating cables can be incorporated to overcome the problem of ice.
Select materials that provide a firm, level surface and are non-slip when wet or dry.
Ramps should have a slight cross-fall to shed water.
Regular maintenance is essential to ensure that ramps remain usable and safe. In particular the removal of debris and clearance of snow and ice in winter.